Marx, K. Milios J. Dimoulis and G. Economakis Karl Marx and the Classics. Sotiropoulos D. Milios, and S. Email: john.yuzu-washoku.com/components/2020-09-24/1700.php
Il Devoto-Oli. Vocabolario della lingua italiana 2014
In the concept of value, its secret is betrayed. It follows therefore that in proportion as capital accumulates, the lot of the worker, be his payment high or low, must grow worse. Even in the extreme case of market-based systems such as those of the USA, UK and Australia , the main loan sources are retained earnings, bank loans, and bond issues Bryan and Rafferty ; Dumenil and Levy ; Deakin At the same time, it is useful to note that in contrast to what is often asserted by heterodox authors, since the beginning of the s joint-stock companies have become steadily less willing to distribute dividends Fama and French Dadurch beansprucht es, die erste Kunstform im Zeitalter des Netzwerks zu sein.
Gibt es irgendjemanden, der das hier liest und der in den letzten 24 Stunden zu keiner Zeit online war? Bei genauerem Hinsehen unterscheidet es sich jedoch ziemlich von den meisten anderen Dingen. Wie viele Klicks braucht es, um das Buch, das ich will, bei Amazon zu bekommen? Dieses zerbrechliche und mehrdeutige Selbst bedient sich der Mannigfaltigkeit des Selfies. Sie ist weder ein Teilchen noch eine Welle, sondern ein Zustand der Unentschiedenheit. Bei dieser Online-Existenz wird nicht zwischen Zielen und Mitteln unterschieden und sie ist keiner im Vorfeld festgelegten Logik verhaftet.
Das Selbst erfindet sich durch Lustpraktiken. Die Vernunft folgt stets auf die Erfahrung und legt so eine lineare Chronologie fest: erst die Erfahrung, dann die Vernunft. Bei dieser Methode verlieren wir etwas: das Hier und Jetzt des Moments. Dies ist die Dimension des Teilens, der Verbreitung und Verteilung. Das Selfie suggeriert einen Versuch zur Selbsterkenntnis, der zum Scheitern verurteilt ist, bei dem wir Dinge verpassen und zu keiner Form der Wahrheit gelangen.
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Der Versuch, das Selfie aus der Perspektive der Medien- oder Kunstwissenschaft zu betrachten, ist deshalb nicht ganz befriedigend. Auch wenn es all das sein kann, ist es doch noch etwas anderes, das linguistische Codes transzendiert. Als Heidegger sich der Frage des Teilens widmete, bedachte er den Krug. Da ist noch etwas, etwas weniger Sichtbares als ein Bild, aber dennoch genauso real oder greifbar.
Band Even someone convinced that selfies are the lowest form of artistic expression will find themselves repeatedly drawn into debates about them, and the values or the lack thereof they embody. The objection to selfies has its source in the ethical instinct that measures everything according to the seriousness of intention and the rejection of selfies as shallow, self-obsessed and puerile is itself a self-portrait of the objector as a solid citizen, for whom art performs a higher function than self-promotion and the destruction of all aesthetic values.
For this much is true: the selfie asks for nothing less than to annihilate all forms of art that came before it, in this lies its claim to be the first art-form of the age of networks. Is there anyone reading this who did not spend some time online in the last 24 hours?
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The question is, how does it feel. Perhaps it does not feel like the first time, as we are so used to it. But on second thoughts, it is rather different from most other things. Sitting at my desk, I can say that the book is nearer to me than the coffee cup, and that the armchair is more far away than the phone. But what does it mean to say that online something is nearer to me and something is more distant?
Online distance is not measured by meters or feet, it is measured by clicks. How many clicks it takes to get to the book I want on Amazon? How many swipes to get to the news feed? This difference suggests that there is another logic working in the online environment, and from this a demand is emerging for an art that can handle this shift by offering it as a subject of experience.
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It is these considerations, and not questions of aesthetic appeal that determine its impact. For Benjamin, language is the melting pot of all of life because it is both an articulation of rationality and an expression of imagination and sensuousness. But this way of thinking is rapidly becoming redundant as it is the network, and not language that is the perfect expression of life that is produced and sustained by computational technologies.
Not only the selfie, but also the morning cereal and the milk, the shoes and the socks, the planes in the sky, the water in the taps and the babies in the prams are the outcomes of complex networked operations that are for the most part concealed from view and therefore easy to keep out of mind. It is just possible, that the selfie is the first art form that offers a concentrated meditation on the networked condition of life because the selfie is the interplay of two forces: on the one hand it points to someone in space and time, but on the other it manifests in its instant distribution that all spaces are equidistant and that all time is just this instant.
The selfie is the first artwork of the network age because it is not content with description, representation or imitation. While the selfie of course can represent and describe it is also doing something entirely different, it articulates a form of materiality that is real, fully present but also mysteriously inaccessible and virtual: like the process that delivers the cereal to the table or the baby to the pram. In other words, it is both an image of something or someone and it is an embodiment of a relationship that is impossible to represent but possible to experience.
The selfie suggests a new form of materiality that is constructed, plural and multiple, rather than based in the rigid opposition between the subject and the object that underpins all of metaphysical thinking. The selfie does not get rid of the subject and the object, but it destroys the notion of fixed and stable identity and the opposition between it and the world. In each and every selfie the self is re-invented anew and because it has no pre-established identity, the self is being articulated purely in terms of style. In each coffee-shop, with every change of outfit and hairdo, under each new landmark the so-called self is being re-invented.
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Gilles Deleuze observed that it is the psychoanalysts, politicians and priests who want us to believe that the self is a monolith, the selfie on the other hand suggests that it is a construction. Under the logic of the selfie identity and subjectivity do not disappear but they loose their solidity and depth. The self is not permanent and solid, rather it is dependent on continuous reinvention and adaptation. This fragile and plural self rides the multiplicity of selfies. What we used to think of as a monumental singular individuality is exposed by the selfie as multiple and fragmented.
This is an entirely different way of thinking about subjectivity and identity that puts forward the possibility of discarding binary and oppositional thinking in favor of multiplicity. One is neither Jew or Christian, neither Black or White, neither gay or straight, neither working or middle class, rather one is assembling something out of all of the above just for this instant. The ethics of the selfie lie in a procedure that cannot be explained neither by heightened individualism nor by extended socialization, it is neither a particle nor a wave, but a state of undecidability. It is an expression of a demand that both the content of the image and its means of production will be fully present to consciousness at all times.
For this reason, the selfie picture is first and foremost difficult because it requires that we consider its technique on the same level as its content.
Following Adorno, we must demand that the selfie is allowed to speak as an image and as a product of networked operations. The ethics of the selfie is located not in its subject but in the interrelated and unresolved tension between the subject and the techniques, processes and institutions by which the subject is coming into being. Foucault , pp. The network, conceived as the universal erogenous zone is the current form of the organism, and computational technologies meshed with technologies of pleasure such as the selfie help it to multiply through continuous reproduction.
This is an ethics of online existence that does not separate between aims and means and does not adhere to a pre-defined logic. Foucault , p. The self is invented through practices of pleasure. Similarly, it seems to me that the selfie might suggest a rejection of the hierarchy that takes its marching orders from the Platonic distinction between original and copy, and that derives its disciplinary force from the pedagogical dictum to mistrust appearances and surfaces because they are shallow, sensuous and ultimately misleading.
For Plato reason and logic are the highest form of truth, deeper and more meaningful than the deceiving surface of the image. Reason always comes after the experience and so linear chronology is being established: first experience, then reason. And this what is being lost in this procedure: the right here, right now of this moment. Golding , p. If it was not uploaded to the social network it is not a selfie but an arcane self-portrait. The selfie is not concerned with the historical past, with arresting a fleeting moment for posterity.
In short, it is not a photograph in the traditional sense of freezing something and making it available for all future instances. Heidegger , p. This is the dimension of sharing, of dissemination and distribution. Photography have always been a distributive art form, it is nothing else than a photo-copy, but in traditional theory the horizontal distribution of the image, its inherent ability to be duplicated, copied and re-produced is always considered secondary to the content.
It is that which is subservient to the content-king.
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But the selfie changes all that because here sharing does not come after content, nor is it secondary to it. The selfie suggests an attempt at self-cognition that is predisposed to failure, to missing out and not arriving at any form of truth. The selfie is perhaps the first form of popular photography that does not make truth its explicit goal.
For this reason, approaching the selfie from the perspective of media studies or art history would, at best, get only half the picture. The notion of care that is embodied in the act of sharing is not a symbol, it is not a sign, or a speech act. It can of course be all these things, but it is also something else that transcends linguistic codes. Human beings can re-present to themselves only that which stands outside themselves, only that which is external to their being. But sharing is not external to being human, it is not outside, it is, on the contrary, precisely that which makes the human possible.
When Heidegger attended to the question of sharing he considered a jug.